docker(容器常用命令)

docker(容器常用命令)

容器命令

镜像下载

#docker中下载centos
docker pull centos
docker run 镜像id #新建容器并启动

docker ps 列出所有运行的容器 docker container list

docker rm 容器id #删除指定容器

docker start 容器id	#启动容器
docker restart 容器id	#重启容器
docker stop 容器id	#停止当前正在运行的容器
docker kill 容器id	#强制停止当前容器
[root@iz2zeak7sgj6i7hrb2g862z ~]# docker container list  #h和docker ps相同

新建容器并启动

docker run [可选参数] image | docker container run [可选参数] image 
#参书说明
--name="Name"		#容器名字 tomcat01 tomcat02 用来区分容器
-d					#后台方式运行
-it 				#使用交互方式运行,进入容器查看内容
-p					#指定容器的端口 -p 8080(宿主机):8080(容器)
		-p ip:主机端口:容器端口
		-p 主机端口:容器端口(常用)
		-p 容器端口
		容器端口
-P(大写) 				随机指定端口

# 测试、启动并进入容器
[root@iz2zeak7sgj6i7hrb2g
[root@iz2zeak7sgj6i7hrb2g862z ~]# docker run -it centos /bin/bash
[root@241b5abce65e /]# ls
bin  dev  etc  home  lib  lib64  lost+found  media  mnt  opt  proc  root  run  sbin  srv  sys  tmp  usr  var
[root@241b5abce65e /]# exit #从容器退回主机
exit

列出所有运行的容器

docker ps 命令  		#列出当前正在运行的容器
  -a, --all     	 #列出当前正在运行的容器 + 带出历史运行过的容器
  -n=?, --last int   #列出最近创建的?个容器 ?为1则只列出最近创建的一个容器,为2则列出2个
  -q, --quiet        #只列出容器的编号

退出容器
exit 		#容器直接退出
ctrl +P +Q  #容器不停止退出 	---注意:这个很有用的操作
mac电脑如下
control +p +q

删除容器

docker rm 容器id   				#删除指定的容器,不能删除正在运行的容器,如果要强制删除 rm -rf
docker rm -f $(docker ps -aq)  	 #删除所有的容器
docker ps -a -q|xargs docker rm  #删除所有的容器

启动和停止

docker start 容器id	#启动容器
docker restart 容器id	#重启容器
docker stop 容器id	#停止当前正在运行的容器
docker kill 容器id	#强制停止当前容器

其他常用命令

后台启动命令

# 命令 docker run -d 镜像名
[root@iz2zeak7sgj6i7hrb2g862z ~]# docker run -d centos
a8f922c255859622ac45ce3a535b7a0e8253329be4756ed6e32265d2dd2fac6c

[root@iz2zeak7sgj6i7hrb2g862z ~]# docker ps    
CONTAINER ID      IMAGE       COMMAND    CREATED     STATUS   PORTS    NAMES
# 问题docker ps. 发现centos 停止了
# 常见的坑,docker容器使用后台运行,就必须要有要一个前台进程,docker发现没有应用,就会自动停止
# nginx,容器启动后,发现自己没有提供服务,就会立刻停止,就是没有程序了

查看日志

docker logs --help
Options:
      --details        Show extra details provided to logs 
*  -f, --follow         Follow log output
      --since string   Show logs since timestamp (e.g. 2013-01-02T13:23:37) or relative (e.g. 42m for 42 minutes)
*      --tail string    Number of lines to show from the end of the logs (default "all")
*  -t, --timestamps     Show timestamps
      --until string   Show logs before a timestamp (e.g. 2013-01-02T13:23:37) or relative (e.g. 42m for 42 minutes)
➜  ~ docker run -d centos /bin/sh -c "while true;do echo 6666;sleep 1;done" #模拟日志      
#显示日志
-tf		#显示日志信息(一直更新)
--tail number #需要显示日志条数
docker logs -t --tail n 容器id #查看n行日志
docker logs -ft 容器id #跟着日志

查看容器中进程信息ps

# 命令 docker top 容器id

查看镜像的元数据

# 命令
docker inspect 容器id

#测试
➜  ~ docker inspect 55321bcae33d
[
    {
        "Id": "55321bcae33d15da8280bcac1d2bc1141d213bcc8f8e792edfd832ff61ae5066",
        "Created": "2020-05-15T05:22:05.515909071Z",
        "Path": "/bin/sh",
        "Args": [
            "-c",
            "while true;do echo 6666;sleep 1;done"
        ],
        "State": {
            "Status": "running",
            "Running": true,
            "Paused": false,
            "Restarting": false,
            "OOMKilled": false,
            "Dead": false,
            "Pid": 22973,
            "ExitCode": 0,
            "Error": "",
            "StartedAt": "2020-05-15T05:22:06.165904633Z",
            "FinishedAt": "0001-01-01T00:00:00Z"
        },
        "Image": "sha256:470671670cac686c7cf0081e0b37da2e9f4f768ddc5f6a26102ccd1c6954c1ee",
        "ResolvConfPath": "/var/lib/docker/containers/55321bcae33d15da8280bcac1d2bc1141d213bcc8f8e792edfd832ff61ae5066/resolv.conf",
        "HostnamePath": "/var/lib/docker/containers/55321bcae33d15da8280bcac1d2bc1141d213bcc8f8e792edfd832ff61ae5066/hostname",
        "HostsPath": "/var/lib/docker/containers/55321bcae33d15da8280bcac1d2bc1141d213bcc8f8e792edfd832ff61ae5066/hosts",
        "LogPath": "/var/lib/docker/containers/55321bcae33d15da8280bcac1d2bc1141d213bcc8f8e792edfd832ff61ae5066/55321bcae33d15da8280bcac1d2bc1141d213bcc8f8e792edfd832ff61ae5066-json.log",
        "Name": "/bold_bell",
        "RestartCount": 0,
        "Driver": "overlay2",
        "Platform": "linux",
        "MountLabel": "",
        "ProcessLabel": "",
        "AppArmorProfile": "docker-default",
        "ExecIDs": null,
        "HostConfig": {
            "Binds": null,
            "ContainerIDFile": "",
            "LogConfig": {
                "Type": "json-file",
                "Config": {}
            },
            "NetworkMode": "default",
            "PortBindings": {},
            "RestartPolicy": {
                "Name": "no",
                "MaximumRetryCount": 0
            },
            "AutoRemove": false,
            "VolumeDriver": "",
            "VolumesFrom": null,
            "CapAdd": null,
            "CapDrop": null,
            "Capabilities": null,
            "Dns": [],
            "DnsOptions": [],
            "DnsSearch": [],
            "ExtraHosts": null,
            "GroupAdd": null,
            "IpcMode": "private",
            "Cgroup": "",
            "Links": null,
            "OomScoreAdj": 0,
            "PidMode": "",
            "Privileged": false,
            "PublishAllPorts": false,
            "ReadonlyRootfs": false,
            "SecurityOpt": null,
            "UTSMode": "",
            "UsernsMode": "",
            "ShmSize": 67108864,
            "Runtime": "runc",
            "ConsoleSize": [
                0,
                0
            ],
            "Isolation": "",
            "CpuShares": 0,
            "Memory": 0,
            "NanoCpus": 0,
            "CgroupParent": "",
            "BlkioWeight": 0,
            "BlkioWeightDevice": [],
            "BlkioDeviceReadBps": null,
            "BlkioDeviceWriteBps": null,
            "BlkioDeviceReadIOps": null,
            "BlkioDeviceWriteIOps": null,
            "CpuPeriod": 0,
            "CpuQuota": 0,
            "CpuRealtimePeriod": 0,
            "CpuRealtimeRuntime": 0,
            "CpusetCpus": "",
            "CpusetMems": "",
            "Devices": [],
            "DeviceCgroupRules": null,
            "DeviceRequests": null,
            "KernelMemory": 0,
            "KernelMemoryTCP": 0,
            "MemoryReservation": 0,
            "MemorySwap": 0,
            "MemorySwappiness": null,
            "OomKillDisable": false,
            "PidsLimit": null,
            "Ulimits": null,
            "CpuCount": 0,
            "CpuPercent": 0,
            "IOMaximumIOps": 0,
            "IOMaximumBandwidth": 0,
            "MaskedPaths": [
                "/proc/asound",
                "/proc/acpi",
                "/proc/kcore",
                "/proc/keys",
                "/proc/latency_stats",
                "/proc/timer_list",
                "/proc/timer_stats",
                "/proc/sched_debug",
                "/proc/scsi",
                "/sys/firmware"
            ],
            "ReadonlyPaths": [
                "/proc/bus",
                "/proc/fs",
                "/proc/irq",
                "/proc/sys",
                "/proc/sysrq-trigger"
            ]
        },
        "GraphDriver": {
            "Data": {
                "LowerDir": "/var/lib/docker/overlay2/1f347949ba49c4dbee70cea9ff3af39a14e602bc8fac8331c46347bf6708757a-init/diff:/var/lib/docker/overlay2/5afcd8220c51854a847a36f52775b4ed0acb16fe6cfaec3bd2e5df59863835ba/diff",
                "MergedDir": "/var/lib/docker/overlay2/1f347949ba49c4dbee70cea9ff3af39a14e602bc8fac8331c46347bf6708757a/merged",
                "UpperDir": "/var/lib/docker/overlay2/1f347949ba49c4dbee70cea9ff3af39a14e602bc8fac8331c46347bf6708757a/diff",
                "WorkDir": "/var/lib/docker/overlay2/1f347949ba49c4dbee70cea9ff3af39a14e602bc8fac8331c46347bf6708757a/work"
            },
            "Name": "overlay2"
        },
        "Mounts": [],
        "Config": {
            "Hostname": "55321bcae33d",
            "Domainname": "",
            "User": "",
            "AttachStdin": false,
            "AttachStdout": false,
            "AttachStderr": false,
            "Tty": false,
            "OpenStdin": false,
            "StdinOnce": false,
            "Env": [
                "PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin"
            ],
            "Cmd": [
                "/bin/sh",
                "-c",
                "while true;do echo 6666;sleep 1;done"
            ],
            "Image": "centos",
            "Volumes": null,
            "WorkingDir": "",
            "Entrypoint": null,
            "OnBuild": null,
            "Labels": {
                "org.label-schema.build-date": "20200114",
                "org.label-schema.license": "GPLv2",
                "org.label-schema.name": "CentOS Base Image",
                "org.label-schema.schema-version": "1.0",
                "org.label-schema.vendor": "CentOS",
                "org.opencontainers.image.created": "2020-01-14 00:00:00-08:00",
                "org.opencontainers.image.licenses": "GPL-2.0-only",
                "org.opencontainers.image.title": "CentOS Base Image",
                "org.opencontainers.image.vendor": "CentOS"
            }
        },
        "NetworkSettings": {
            "Bridge": "",
            "SandboxID": "63ed0c837f35c12453bae9661859f37a08541a0749afb86e881869bf6fd9031b",
            "HairpinMode": false,
            "LinkLocalIPv6Address": "",
            "LinkLocalIPv6PrefixLen": 0,
            "Ports": {},
            "SandboxKey": "/var/run/docker/netns/63ed0c837f35",
            "SecondaryIPAddresses": null,
            "SecondaryIPv6Addresses": null,
            "EndpointID": "b129d9a5a2cbb92722a2101244bd81a9e3d8af034e83f338c13790a1a94552a1",
            "Gateway": "172.17.0.1",
            "GlobalIPv6Address": "",
            "GlobalIPv6PrefixLen": 0,
            "IPAddress": "172.17.0.4",
            "IPPrefixLen": 16,
            "IPv6Gateway": "",
            "MacAddress": "02:42:ac:11:00:04",
            "Networks": {
                "bridge": {
                    "IPAMConfig": null,
                    "Links": null,
                    "Aliases": null,
                    "NetworkID": "ad5ada6a106f5ba3dda9ce4bc1475a4bb593bf5f7fbead72196e66515e8ac36a",
                    "EndpointID": "b129d9a5a2cbb92722a2101244bd81a9e3d8af034e83f338c13790a1a94552a1",
                    "Gateway": "172.17.0.1",
                    "IPAddress": "172.17.0.4",
                    "IPPrefixLen": 16,
                    "IPv6Gateway": "",
                    "GlobalIPv6Address": "",
                    "GlobalIPv6PrefixLen": 0,
                    "MacAddress": "02:42:ac:11:00:04",
                    "DriverOpts": null
                }
            }
        }
    }
]

进入容器

我们通常容器都是使用后台方式运行的,需要进入容器,修改一些配置。

方式一

docker ps
docker exec -it 容器id /bin/bash

方式二

# 方式二
docker attach 容器id
#测试
docker attach 55321bcae33d 
正在执行当前的代码...
区别
#docker exec #进入当前容器后开启一个新的终端,可以在里面操作。(常用)
#docker attach # 进入容器正在执行的终端

从容器内拷贝到主机上

docker cp 容器id:容器内路径  主机目的路径

[root@iz2zeak7sgj6i7hrb2g862z ~]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID     IMAGE    COMMAND     CREATED         STATUS       PORTS      NAMES
56a5583b25b4     centos   "/bin/bash" 7seconds ago    Up 6 seconds      

#1. 进入docker容器内部
[root@iz2zeak7sgj6i7hrb2g862z ~]# docker exec -it 56a5583b25b4 /bin/bash
[root@55321bcae33d /]# ls
bin  dev  etc  home  lib  lib64  lost+found  media  mnt  opt  proc  root  run  sbin  srv  sys  tmp  usr  var

#新建一个文件
[root@55321bcae33d /]# echo "hello" > java.java
[root@55321bcae33d /]# cat hello.java 
hello
[root@55321bcae33d /]# exit
exit

#hello.java拷贝到home文件加下
[root@iz2zeak7sgj6i7hrb2g862z /]# docker cp 56a5583b25b4:/hello.java /home 
[root@iz2zeak7sgj6i7hrb2g862z /]# cd /home
[root@iz2zeak7sgj6i7hrb2g862z home]# ls -l	#可以看见java.java存在
total 8
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    0 May 19 22:09 haust.java
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    6 May 22 11:12 java.java
drwx------ 3 www  www  4096 May  8 12:14 www

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